Extended Fowkes method
The extended Fowkes method is a method for calculating the surface free energy of a solid from the contact angle with several liquids. In doing so, the surface free energy is divided into a polar part and a dispersive part. A hydrogen bond part is also separated out for the polar part.
Building on the Fowkes method and the Owens, Wendt, Rabel und Kaelble method, the interfacial tension σsl is calculated based on the two surface tensions σs and σl and the similar interactions between the phases. These interactions are interpreted as the geometric mean of a dispersive part σD, a hydrogen bond part σH and a part comprising other polar interactions σP of the surface tension or surface free energy:
The extended Fowkes method has rarely been used in the past for material testing. However, it is valuable for estimating the adhesion of two phases, as hydrogen bonds have greater bonding energy compared with dispersive and dipole-dipole interactions. The wettability of a solid by water depends to a great extent on the capability of the solid to form hydrogen bonds.
Chen Jie-Rong; T. Wakida, Studies on the Surface Free Energy and Surface Structure of PTFE Film Treated with Low Temperature Plasma. In: Appl. Poly. Sci 63,13 (1997), P. 1733-1739.